Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Mon, April 15, 2019 17:37:48
In January, I first posted about the alarming levels of air pollution in
Granada, to which the city’s particular topography contributes [//blog.granadalabella.eu/#post97]. Now a 30kph speed limit has been introduced for the whole urban area and
will be maintained as long as the problem remains unresolved (the foreseeable
future). It is one measure to fight pollution among others, which include the
gradual increase in the number of electric and hybrid vehicles, the elimination
of diesel and other highly contaminating fossil fuel-burning engines, and the promotion
of environment-friendlier means of transport such as scooters, skateboards,
roller skates, and bikes.
The town council voted in favour of the 30 kph speed limit on 1 March and
at the moment traffic signs are being changed throughout the city.
A further measure will be to reduce the speed limit on the ring road from
100 to 90kph.
These new measures are designed to reduce not only air pollution but also
noise pollution levels, not to mention accidents, thus improving the quality of
I read somewhere that Granada used to be a quiet, almost silent city, and
that when the wind blew in from the Vega it would not encounter a sound until
it reached the gurgling of the fountain in Plaza Nueva. Lorca? Another anecdote
said that the bell on the Veleta tower of the Alhambra was rung to signal
changeover times for the irrigation canals out on the Vega, where it could be
heard clearly at all hours.
Those days are gone and will not
return, but we know: air pollution is a killer, - and silence is golden...
Vallejo 10 Abril, 2019 - 14:12h
Left: the 30 kph speed limit applies to the entire road network inside the ringroad. Right: environment-friendly means of transport
Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Sat, April 13, 2019 11:19:22
If Granada is only the second
, what is the first?
is the obvious question to be asked. And the answer is: Santander
The ratings are achieved by a comprehensive box ticking
method with altogether fifteen categories to be evaluated, including the
quality of public transport, preservation of the cultural heritage, cultural
and tourist facilities, hospitality, a feeling of safety, entertainment for
children, gastronomy, night life, shopping, and prices, plus a box for global
Granada did well on preservation of the cultural heritage, shopping and
prices, scoring a total of 85 points out of 100. (Did less well on hospitality,
maybe, what with the ‘malafollá granadina’...) It was pipped by Santander which
scored 87 and outdid Granada on hospitality, gastronomy and safety.
https://www.granadahoy.com/granada/Granada-segunda-espanola-valorada-turistas_0_1344765896.html E. P. 11 April, 2019
* The ratings are from a survey carried out by the Organización de Consumidores y Usuarios (OCU) which asked Spanish, Belgian, French, Italian and Portuguese
tourists who had stayed in a city inside or outside Spain for at least one
night in the last two years.
The gastronomy of Granada: The Essential Guide: Where to Eat Tapas in Granada April 3, 2019 https://devoursevillefoodtours.com/where-to-eat-tapas-granada/
Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Tue, March 26, 2019 15:56:30
The definition of ‘tapa’ according to the Spanish Royal Academy is a small
portion of food accompanying a drink.
This definition leaves out two essential elements that make up what we
understand a tapa to be in Granada today and they are 1) that it’s free, and 2) that everyone without exception is offered one.
If it’s not free, it’s a snack, or a bite to eat, a light meal, a tidbit, a
morsel of food, a mini-portion ... anything, but not a tapa. Similarly, if it’s
not offered indiscriminately, it may be a treat, a favour, preferential
treatment for some unknown motive, a reward for some special service, a bribe,
a personal incentive, ... but it’s not a tapa.
The verb ‘tapar’ means to cover and a ‘tapa’ is then a lid. The story goes
that the custom developed of covering the wine glass with a slice of ham or
sausage, either to prevent foreign bodies (flies, flecks of dust or dirt, etc) entering
the glass, or to prevent the aroma of the wine from escaping.
I once heard that the tradition of the free tapa, which is typical for East
Andalusia but not for the rest of the country, developed in cash-strapped
Granada in the 1930s as part of the fierce competition among bar owners vying
for custom and I’ve always believed it. The story I was told mentioned the bar
and its location, in one of the small streets close to Plaza del Carmen, but
I’ve forgotten the name and can’t trace it at the moment.
Anyway, now, a ‘tourist development agent’ by the name of Gabriel Medina has by accident
discovered the earliest documented reference to the phenomenon while
researching the gypsy zambra - a
style of Flamenco dance associated with wedding ceremonies. In his research, he
came across an advert in a newspaper for a tavern which offered macetas
(obviously not a flower-pot
but a drinking receptacle) a 10 céntimos
con tapaderas de salchichón [drinks at 10 centimes with sausage ‘covers’].
This ad points to the date of 13 October 1909 as being the documentary birthday
of the tapa as we know it in Granada today.
This said tavern went by the name of Café Económico de Antonio el Aparcero
and in 1909 it was situated
in the calle (street) Tendillas de Santa Paula,
on the corner of calle de San Jerónimo.
Antonio el Aparcero subsequently
changed his premises a number of times before, in 1912, opening a tavern in the
central calle Sierpe Baja.
In this same year, the following announcement could be read:
El Aparcero tiene costumbre de servir con la maceta algún aperitivo, sin que
por ello empeore la buena calidad de sus géneros”
[Antonio ‘the Sharecropper’ has the custom of serving some kind of appetizer
with your drink, without affecting the high quality of his beverages.]
Antonio el Aparcero was Antonio Quirosa Mendoza, born 8 October 1870, not far away
at calle Puente de la Virgen, 3. We do not know how long Antonio kept up the custom of serving a tapa with
the drink ordered by his customers, or if he was ever aware of the time-honoured
tradition that can now be dated back to that October day, shortly after his 39th
El origen de
la tapa de Granada / G. M.
M. V. Granada, 21 Marzo, 2019 - 20:23h
Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Tue, January 22, 2019 22:35:42
A few hours of non-stop rain on the
night of 19-20 January accompanied by some fairly mild winds was enough to
clear the air in Granada, a welcome and long overdue relief for all of us.
17 January, Ecologistas en Acción
had reported the alarming levels of air pollution that were being built up over
Granada due to a noxious mixture of nitrogen dioxide and environmentally pernicious particles. This is
part of a familiar weather pattern that is repeated year after year. Something
to do with the exceedingly high summer temperatures favouring the creation of a
layer of ozone which trap said noxious mixture in the long periods of
anticyclonic and windless weather conditions typical in winter. Collected data
showed that by mid-January air pollution
was posing a threat to all forms of life in the metropolitan area of Granada,
home to half a million people.
Fortunately, this threat came to an
end on Sunday just a couple of days after the Ecologists in Action’s warning.
Nevertheless, the ecologists’ call for a comprehensive plan of action to deal
with the poor quality of Granada’s air needs to be heeded in view of the
predictability of a repetition of the unfavourable climatic conditions in the next period of anticyclonic winter weather.
BEFORE ... the rain ... and AFTER
Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Thu, January 03, 2019 16:56:18
In case you didn’t know, Spanish dictator
General Francisco Franco’s mortal remains are buried at the Valley of the
Fallen (Valle de los Caídos), a
hideous fascist monument built by the forced labour of political prisoners on a
mountainside north of Madrid to commemorate all those who died during the
Spanish Civil War, though he himself died peacefully in his bed in 1975 at the
age of 82.
However, he is about to be disturbed 44
years after his death. When social democrat Pedro Sánchez became president of
the Spanish government in June 2018 via a motion of no confidence in his
predecessor, Mariano Rajoy of the right-wing Popular Party, he undertook to
have the nationalist leader exhumed and removed from the memorial site, symbol
of the dictator and his repressive regime and a pilgrimage destination for his
supporters to this day.
At the same time, Sánchez offered to involve the
family of the late dictator in the decision as to where the corpse should be
re-buried. Right then, they said, if we cannot avoid the exhumation, we’ll have
grandfather Francisco moved to the family crypt in the La Almuneda cathedral in
Madrid. It’s where his daughter, Carmen Franco Polo, and her husband Cristóbal
of Villaverde lie buried.
Pedro Sánchez is not very happy about this. If the old
tyrant’s resting place at the Valley of the Fallen demands of his supporters some
effort in travelling around 60 kilometres from the capital to pay their
respects to their hero, La Almuneda is slap bang in the middle of Madrid and along
with the Royal Palace one of the city’s major tourist attractions. Imagine the
tomb of the Generalísimo being part
So the Government has turned down this proposal,
allegedly on account of the threat it poses to public order, with the
possibility of violent confrontations breaking out between supporters and
opponents of the man who ruled over Spain for 36 years (1939-1975), not to mention the
threat of possible terrorist attacks. In other words: technical but no
political arguments against the late dictator capturing this top spot at the very
heart of the capital.
So far, an alternative to La Almuneda has not been
decided on, though there is talk of the cemetery of Mingorrubio, El Pardo
(Madrid), where his wife Carmen Polo lies buried in a grave that belongs to the
country’s National Patrimony, as, incidentally, does the Valle de los Caídos memorial.
This soul-searching quest for an
appropriate place to dispose of the remains of the man who is responsible for close
to half a million deaths among the population may sound perverse, but as we
know: Spain is different.
There’s no hurry, says President Sánchez laconically. Franco’s
mortal remains have been where they are for 40 years, so as far as he is concerned
a few more months are neither here nor there.
other threat of exhumation is of more concern to us. For a while, it looked as
if the mortal remains of Emilia Llanos Medina would have to be removed from
their niche in the Cemetery of San José in Granada owing to non-payment of long
overdue maintenance rates. She died childless on
29 August 1967 and there are no family descendents to take on the
Why is this of such concern to us? The ‘marvellous’
Emilia Llanos was in the words of our poet FGL a ‘spiritual
treasure’ among the women of Granada and ‘divine emblem of the 20th Century’, worthy
of ‘all his admiration and fervour’. Thus, his dedication to her in the copy of
Impressions and Landscapes he gave
her, a few days after them having been introduced, on 29 August 1918. She and
Lorca remained the closest of friends up until his murder eighteen years later.
Emilia was similarly close all her life to the musician Manuel de Falla and especially
his sister María del Carmen.
Fortunately, we know now that Emilia will
not end up in an unmarked grave - ‘a pauper’s grave’ as they used to say - thanks
to the intervention of aware local politicians, who pointed out her key role in
the cultural life of twentieth century Granada, allowing her tomb to be
recognised as worthy of maintenance by the city council. This, even though she
did not figure in the official list of local dignitaries in receipt of formal honours
and distinctions from the city.
Her memory may no have the social impact as
that of the late caudillo, Francisco
Franco Bahamonde, but it does look as if she will be able to continue to rest in peace.
Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Sun, February 11, 2018 21:29:42
Would you believe that Granada is the city which
receives the greatest density of tourists in the whole of Spain? Well, it is.
quite sure how they work this out but it’s to do with the number of visitors in
relation to the permanent population and the total urban area. So Exceltur, in its study of the fifteen
most popular tourist destinations, puts Granada in first place with an average
daily tourist density of 11.7%. This tops even Barcelona, with a density of 11.1%.
not come as such a surprise if you visited the Mirador San Nicolás on a sunny
Sunday, like today (11 Feb 18). Or if you walked down through the Albaicín
facing the oncoming hordes on the morning of a Spanish ‘puente’ (long weekend:
6-10 Dec 17).
places Granada’s well above Spain’s average tourist density of 7.4%. In Madrid,
by way of comparison, tourists would pass barely perceived among the daily
crowds of locals, with a density of a mere 4.6%. Or what about Córdoba with
only 3.7%? Granada is also well ahead of the two other major Andalusian tourist
destinations: Málaga (8% tourist density) and Sevilla (7.1%).
determining factor in the surge of tourist density in recent years has been the
boom in residential tourist accommodation à la airbnb. Exceltur calculates that a daily average of 27,376 visitors come to
Granada, of whom 15,078, that’s 55%, opt for airbnb-type lodgings. Only 45%
overnight in proper hotels and hostals.
This is a high
proportion, but it is not as high as Málaga, where 75% of tourists are reported
to stay at these kinds of places. It is also behind most of the major tourist
destinations in this respect: Alicante (67.8%), San Sebastián (66.7%), Palma de
Mallorca (65.8%), Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (60.6%), Sevilla (60.5%) and Valencia
(60,3%). And it is this conversion of residential accommodation into tourist
accommodation that has given rise to the greatest displeasure among the local
Barcelona, it is the high proportion of private homes totally or partially
converted into tourist accommodation that has fuelled open hostility to the
influx of tourists. There, neighbourhoods are really being torn apart by a loss
of affordable housing and the restructuring of services to cater for what are
in effect holiday makers rather than for the local people. Of course, it is
sheer numbers that cause the greatest problems. It’s ok if a couple of guiris pop into your local bar, but if
your local bar then becomes a tourist attraction, you may have to go somewhere
else for your coffee and toast.
So far, an
open hostility towards visitors has not led to aggressive reactions among the
local people of Granada. This may be because the places where tourists
aggregate (Alhambra, Albaicín, Centre) tend to be outside the traditional
neighbourhoods and residential areas. It is less likely to be a result of the
sweet, tolerant nature of the indigenous populace.
Acknowledgements to Guadalupe S. Maldonado, Granada Hoy, 11 Febrero,
Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Mon, February 17, 2014 21:38:12
The “Fiesta de la
Primavera” (Spring Festival) in Granada started as an impromptu celebration of
winter’s end a couple of decades ago, a spontaneous street party for the younger
generation in post-Franco Spain. Totally unofficial, it soon attracted
fun-loving people far and wide largely by means of social media. It started in
the picturesque Paseo de los Tristes
on the banks of the River Darro, below the Alhambra, but it soon outgrew that
space. I remember, one morning maybe a dozen years ago, driving to work through
the rubbish and the squalor left behind after one of the first “macrobotellones”
being held in the vicinity of the Bull Ring,
The “botellón” itself
goes back further. In an embryonic form it already existed when I arrived in
Granada in 1990. Botellón, literally “Big Bottle”, might be translated rather
as “Street Bottle Party”. With exorbitant prices in the clubs and discos,
students and young people in general would organise a gathering of peers who
came along with their own alcoholic beverages, brought from home, or bought
beforehand at the supermarket or the local off-licence. On special occasions,
these bottle parties would become huge gatherings of naturally noisy youth, who
would also bring their own ghetto-blasting music, and soon conflicts arose with
local residents. From the start, a favoured venue for these gatherings was just
behind El Corte Ingles on Arabial Street. It was on the edge of the night
entertainment zone, where later they would pay to enter a club for a bop, or
take one last or last-but-one paid-for rum and coke, etc. Further advantages of
the venue were that there was very little through traffic, and not too many
neighbours to disturb.
The state of these
venues the morning after was, as already suggested, often catastrophic with
rubbish, broken glass, and streams of urine to greet local weekend early risers
and dog walkers. The “macrobotellón” differs from an ordinary “botellón” in
being a truly massive special event, as welcoming in the spring obviously is. Botellones
are very common in the south of Spain, not so in the north, presumably for
an urgent need, the botellón phenomenon could not be banned – especially in the
liberal atmosphere of the post-Franco decades – and so the authorities looked
for ways of managing it and limiting the collateral harm they might cause to respectable
and enfranchised citizens. They looked for a place to accommodate them, and
thus the “botellódromo” came into being, the word following the formation of
the word “aerodrome” in English, or salsódromo in Latin America: a place to do
it. The place that was finally chosen is located not far from the venue of the
original unofficial botellones, on the other side of the ring road, past the
Corte Ingles, where the town ends and the countryside starts. Granada is not a
big city, so it is easily accessible and yet out of the way of residents,
shoppers, and conventional clubbers.
The botellódromo does
not have the picturesque setting of the original Paseo de los Tristes site, so
to compensate, and killing two birds with one stone, another element of youth
culture which has proved often to be offensive to the tax-paying voter-citizen
of Granada has been harnessed by officialdom to brighten up the official Big Bottle
Party venue: that is the work of graffiti artists. Pictured we see a street-art
depiction of Granada’s greatest son, the poet Federico García Lorca,
which has just been completed to adorn the venue in time for this year’s Spring
Festival, traditionally held mid- to late March.
element of spontaneity, the exact date of this year’s celebration is yet to be determined,
Nevertheless, no harm in asking for information from travel agents, such as Sevilla
On Tour, who will be pleased to help you arrange your trip to Granada for the
event. Last year it was on Friday 15 March when more than 18.000 attended the
celebration of their particular rites of spring, leaving behind, for the
record, more than 42 tons of rubbish.
Mingorance in Granada Hoy, 12.02.2014
Contemporary GranadaPosted by Simon Wed, January 08, 2014 08:48:30
13 February, 2013 I blogged about the proposal to raise ten sites related to
the life and works of Federico Lorca to the status of “cultural assets” as part
of a project the purpose of which is to protect them against material deterioration
and ultimately their irretrievable loss (#post30) and so preserve them for
posterity (and commercial exploitation).
ten proposals, seven have finally won official recognition by the Junta’s
(regional government’s) Cultural Commission and are now “Assets of Cultural
three sites that have been left out, perhaps the most alarming case is that of
the Cortijo del Fraile in Níjar,
Almería, scene of the events that inspired Bodas de sangre, which I
reported then as being in very poor condition after years of neglect and abandonment. From what I
understand from José Miguel Muñoz’s article in El País dated 3 November 2013,
source of the new information passed on here, this site had already been
granted cultural asset status in 2011 under the authority of the province of Almería.
Without much positive effect, though, in spite of the fact that its owners have
already been fined for not fulfilling their obligation to maintain it and
prevent its deterioration. So it is to fear that the official declaration of
cultural asset status might be ineffectual in the face of private owners more
concerned with material costs than with the prevention of cultural loss.
In this respect, it is possibly relevant than all three of the
excluded sites are in private ownership.
The other two are Acera del Darro, 46, family home in Granada between 1909 and 1916, and
the Cortijo de Daimuz Alto,
Valderrubio, where the poet’s younger brother recalls his “earliest childhood
memories”. The former has been incorporated in the next door Hotel Montecarlo
and has undergone significant modifications, although the original entrance – I
am assured – remains, as well as the staircase and “part of the patio”. As for
the Cortijo de Daimuz, it was bought by people very sympathetic to Lorca and
looks to be thriving, in much better condition than when I first saw it, some
20 years ago.
As for the seven officially sanctioned sites only
one is in private hands: the Huerta
del Tamarit, on the Vega, quite close to the Huerta
de San Vicente, near the River Genil, on the other side of the ring road. It
was threatened by proposed road construction not so long ago (see blog post19),
but is safe now. It belonged to Francisco García
Rodríguez, father of the poet’s cousin Clotilde García Picossi, and Lorca was a
frequent visitor, eternalising its name of course in his late poetry collection
El diván del Tamarit (completed
in the summer of 1934). I believe it remains in the family.
The greatest beneficiary of its new cultural asset status may well be the House of Frasquita
– or Bernarda - Alba in Valderrubio. Until
1997 it was still home to the Alba family who vehemently turned away the
curious. After a decade of negotiations with the family, in which time the
house was allowed to deteriorate badly, it was bought and taken over by a
public consortium which has undertaken to restore it and convert it into
a museum. (A museum of what, I wonder.)
established and functioning as relevant referents to the life and works of
Granada’s greatest son are his birthplace in Fuente Vaqueros (Casa-museo), which opened its doors to the public
in 1986. Link to site in Spanish. In English.
and the Huerta de San Vicente, which started
operating in 1995. Spanish link. English.
More recently, the family home in Valderrubio was rehabilitated and now contributes to
the cultural life of the local community while keeping alive the memory of
Federico and his works. Spanish link. Link to site in English. Lorca’s father purchased it in 1895, along with
the Cortijo de Daimuz and various other properties in Valderrubio, with his
late wife’s money. It became the hub of his extensive agricultural operations
and of vital importance to the poet’s development. A stone’s throw away is the Fuente de la Teja, on the banks of the
Cubillas River, and fourth of the Valderrubio sites, further evidence of the importance of this village in the making of the poet.
The tenth and last proposal for cultural asset status is the Camino de Fuente Grande, the road that
runs between Víznar and Alfacar, from the Palacio de Cuzco to the Fuente Grande
(Aynadamar) itself, following the Moorish
irrigation canal past Las Colonias, the Barranco de Viznar, and the Parque
García Lorca. Of this proposal, only a part has been included in the final plan;
that is the Colonias, the remains of the building, previously
used as a children’s holiday colony, in which the poet was one of the many
victims held for several hours before being taken out to face the firing squad
that murdered them.
It is unfortunate that the rest of the route
between Víznar and Alfacar was excluded from
the project, not least because it is the site of such a great number of summary
executions like Lorca’s and the unmarked graves of so many victims of the
nationalist uprising that triggered the Spanish Civil War.
Now that these chosen places have been granted
cultural asset status, the aim of the Junta is to harness them in a cultural
tourism project that will make “what Granada is to Lorca the same as what Dublin
is to James Joyce” - in the words of Ana Gámez, the Junta’s delegate of Culture
Below: Viznar "ruta del Califato" sign + Aynadamar (Fuente Grande)
ABOVE: restoration of Las Colonias